and the names were written ending from the matchbooks. well, the crowd became so unruly that they started throwing bottles on stage and the police rushed and arrested not the bottle throwers, but the structures. this is the time the group had ever heard of them and a few days after that they rated the rose rooms and arrested rose db not for prostitution, but distribution of narcotics. were standing out front of a couple buildings associated with the most famous madam. the one i stand directly in front of us called the london ice cream pollard now. this one was called davenport saloon, still referred to that. bill lended didn't refer to these, but she was famous for keeping her office here. the thing that is most visually interest in nowadays is this passageway which you see between
them. they supposedly it was built for dell london with a special arrangement for the building's owner said gentleman could discreetldiscreetl y go from 25th street into the center of the block, which was on a tenderloin district. this passageway of these two books is called electric alley. it was in the center of the block and it was built in 1893. the london hired a local structures for to build a grid parlor house for her right for this parking lot is. it was called number 10 electric alley. the alley itself came to end up
both sides it was flanked by kurds which were built for. so from each team 93 to about 1912, electric alley was the place to go for prostitution. i'd like to say she was the most famous and successful madam in utah history. the reason i say she was the most successful was that when salt lake in 1909 decided to create a regulated prostitution west of downtown, they recruited not a matter from salt lake, but the london from august to run it. that was only in salt lake for three years. her career as a quarter-century century from 1889 to 1914. at one point she owned more property than any other private citizen except one of the pink hotel owners.
we are standing on 25th street in what used to be the leaders clothed. this is a very port building in the history of it and for the heritage of 25th street. it was a place of lodging for african-americans who worked with the railroads. they needed a place to say it was convenient. so for years and years, it was the place where they could get food and licensed out a hall where they could play cards. it is a great convenience for them. the owner was really weak lead entering the war years, during world war ii he married a beautiful account woman who had come from utah from new orleans and anabel. annabel shaw. nfl weekly became inseparably assess later with quarters and
waiters and it's what people remember about the club now. annabelle created a club in the basement which featured live jazz. there is a saxophonist who still listen and not him. he is now in his 90s. he got here in 1945. she and anabel weekly team that that -- teamed up and not became a sensation. people love to go. it had the effect of integrated out to to the extent it had been before. twenty-fifth street flourished for about a century. in service started to decline after world war ii, especially the 1950s as they were building the interstate highway system or go buy airline, which is faster than trains. then there are the passenger
service started dying now and by the late 60s it was pretty much all gone. twenty-fifth street today in 2014 at its low point in the 1970s, the building if you see pictures from the mid-1970s looks just horrid. they are in terrible conditions. many had been abandoned for years. that is why they are still here. they are hiding in plain sight. they were desirable said no one wanted to be a 25th street. said no one oldest son to make way for a fancy new building. the street was put on the national register of historic places in the seven days. in 2000, congress created the lower 25th street to people fixing up the buildings. now you've got a viable fiber
and steve were people, for fine dining, street festivals, like theater. this mixed-use condominiums, street distills all the time in good weather. there's just an awful lot to do now on a lot of good reason to come here. >> next in st. louis, harper barnes discusses the race right this struck the civil rights movement. >> my book about the 19,000 in st. louis race traitor had its start in the early days when i was working at the st. louis batch and i was writing an obituary of miles davis, the great trumpet players from east st. louis across the river from st. louis. stories of the race riot had filled his ears as he was a child he said.
he talked about how horrible it was to learn that white people have massacred but people in this small city in illinois. and he thought they affect you and the rest of his life and in fact -- the fact of a riot in his hometown might well have expected his attitude towards white people until the day he died. i got my gosh, miles davis was born in 1926. he was minus nine years old when it fired you for something like that to be so prevalent in the stories he heard as a child to be a powerful indication. people who grew up here knew about the riot that their parents had discussed it. white people on the whole didn't know about it at all and yet it
was by the number of the deadliest race riot in american history until the rodney king riots in los angeles. the congressional hearings have been held six after the riot in people who anticipated, black and white, businessmen, a variety of people with congressional committee had told the story of the riot under the starting with that i tried interviewing people and this would have been in the late latter years of the 20th century's in the very beginning of the 21st century's. i discovered that their memories were not as good as i thought they might be.
the distance from the events. and so i decided i would go with the writ record and much of it was public. w. e. b. deploy i covered for the naacp. marcus garvey, the separationist leader had written about the riot and it was the front page for a week or so. 1917 was not that long ago. the fact that weissert mastery blacks in the streets of middle sized american city is just horrific. in the early years of world war i, america had just entered world war i. the fact is across america cheered at that very many jobs available and blacks in the south at the same time the bulls
will is destroying the cotton crops in jobs disappeared the blacks are moving in large numbers north to industrial city in east st. louis was an industrial city and they were inevitable clashes between five to place over these jobs and it just evolved in to a riot as a place in july of that year 187. the night of july 1st, a black model t. ford drove through a black neighborhood. people shooting out of the windows. an hour later, a black model t. ford moved through a black neighborhood with people shooting out of the windows. no one was killed, but the third time he went through with people shooting out of the windows, locks have assembled young black man with guns and they shot back into police were killed and that
was the riot at all chaos broke out. it started out, as rice often do, with fist fights in the street and so forth, but they quickly escalated. one of the reasons was there is a central bob of men who probably had been in the bar street in all-night, which you could do would be st. louis and other states. sooner or terrible atrocities. black men were hung from telephone poles in downtown street. one man was a mother and her baby were shot as they were trying to escape from a burning building. much of the downtown area was burned down. as i believe i said, 40 people were killed, 39 of the black and at least three were killed by white people.
finally the national guard came in and restored peace, but that by that time much of the city was devastated. the mayor did not want a record of this and did not want east st. louis to be known as the place of the riot. they instructed the police to confiscate cameras and so very few photographs of nurturing the riot and some of those states, in fact all of those good at cards i was able to determine when one of the newspaper's of the newspapers claim that its reference library. so the imagery comes mainly from drawing in newspapers. ..
it was the first one. it was probably the deadliest one. it sort of set the pattern for those that followed. whites would attack blacks, gays them taking their jobs. in some cases white industrialist were in part guilty for flooding the market with blacks who were advertising in southern newspapers of job, help wanted. when there were no jobs at all, so they would have a large pool of workers to draw from. so the unions could not organize against it. but i think was the first edit set a pattern. it was followed by what i consider to be the first major civil rights demonstration. there was a march two weeks after the riot, mid-july 1917. there was eight to 10,000 people marched down fifth avenue from harlem to the middle of the
town, middle of new york, to protest the east st. louis race riot. at the east st. louis race right was the spark for the first civil rights march. i think what i want to to take way from the book is it ain't over. i think we need to be conscious, very conscious and not forget that this was a racial history and all grew out of slavery. a deadly legacy of slavery, we still see its results around us. >> from booktv's recent trip to salem, oregon, learned about the jewish response to the removal and incarceration of japanese-americans during world war ii. >> pearl harbor of course is in december of 41. almost immediately people start talking about what should be done with the enemy alien publish which includes german
and japanese and italians, foreign nationals who are in the element. there's an internet program that starts. what happened to japanese-americans is different and it's commonly called and tournament that most historians now talk about it as removal and incarceration. so the japanese-american population in general on the west coast, which two-thirds of the population were american citizens so they're not enemy aliens. they were american citizens by birth. they were rounded up en masse and had to leave their homes if you live in what was called the western defense zone. so they were removed, forced to leave and then you put in camps surrounded by barbed wire. they were not charged with anything in particular. i got interested in this issue when the read an article about african-american and jewish civil rights organizations, an article talking about how the issue had passed unnoticed to them. they were in new york city, the
headquarters were. so i got curious about what the reaction would be here. and i expected to find that the jewish committee, because of their involvement in civil rights issues, would have spoken out. because unlike the jewish community in new york, for those who live here, it was an abstraction. they were their neighbors. they were familiar with them. the community had a commitment, a public commitment speaking out against what they called prejudice in all its forms. the reaction was a non-reaction. i think in order to understand the significance you to understand something about the context. the first thing to understand is that as the policy start to take shape, and it took shape in february and march of 1942, by destroying japanese americans living in the area and were rounded up and put in temporary camps near the large cities and then they were some school and moved to the camps in the
intermountain states. in general, west coast non-japanese americans, the population joe most politicians, most newspapers strongly supported the removal of japanese-americans to this very popular policy. so that's one piece of the context. the of the peace of the context, what i'm interested in is really, was that the civil rights organizations which were largely based back east didn't pay much attention. what i found was that for the most part it was very, very little said about this. so i started by looking at newspapers, in each of those major cities have in common there was almost nothing said. but when you start to read between the lines, there were these awkward, almost mentions of japanese-americans. so vital to the executive order, roosevelt executive order that kind of launched this policy, in
all of the major jewish newspapers on the west coast, there were editorials talking about how the rights of all have to be protected and we should fight prejudice and all of its forms and so on and so forth, without ever saying the word japanese specifically. it was almost as if they wanted to say something but were nervous about actually doing so. i call it a kind of awkward silence, or an uncomfortable silence around this issue. to speak out about it was to stick your neck out. and the jewish populations were already nervous about anti-semitism. so that's one piece of it. the other piece of it and think is interesting is if you look at these newspapers, what you see is that these communities had really two main agenda items at this moment in time. one of them was this agenda of fighting prejudice and all of its forms because they played only when all prejudice was
eliminated with anti-semitism be a limited. he had to fight it together. the other priority was to support the war effort in order to save european jewry. so this policy i think really put those two goals right in conflict with one another. so the war department and the president himself were saying that japanese-americans had to be removed in order to further the war effort, that they were a threat to the war effort. so the inflation will be that the jewish committee would support that. on the other hand, those few people who speak out against these policies is a policy based on racial identity. so if you're against prejudice and you should be speaking out against it. so i think that this policy brought those two goals write and direct conflict with each other and that's what produces the kind of silence around the issue. some of those who come it depended on community that some of those who spoke out were threatened in various ways.
they were very strong feelings and just remember that at this time the black outs in the coastal cities. there was a fear on the west coast that the west coast would be attacked, and so tensions were quite high. the community relations committee were an arm of the jewish community that emphasize what was at the time called intergroup relations. so work with other ethnic and racial minority groups against prejudice and all of its form. and so i knew that the group in l.a. had emerged during world war ii as a force in the committee and is often held up, several accounts that held up as one of the major organizations behind some rights activities in los angeles. so went to the archives expecting that they would be a group that spoke out. what i found was quite different than that. and it goes back to their history. they were founded under a different name. they were called the jewish community committee of los
angeles. they were founded in 1934 at a time when anti-semitism was increasing very rapidly in the los angeles area and southern california in general. and so they made it their mission to document that anti-somatic activity, some of which is coming in the form of pro-nazi groups. it was a group called the silver shirts for example, and various pro-german groups. and so they wanted to document what was going on. one of the people who came to work for that organization, a man by the name of joe should, was originally from austria. heat -- joseph. he and his wife in another austrian, german jewish émigre's went out and infiltrated these meetings of these pro-nazi groups and to take notes. they would take notes on what was going on and then they wanted to get the word out about
message you want to get that wasn't these groups were both anti-american and anti-somatic. however, they felt that if it was a jewish group getting the word out that that would be perceived as self-serving, and so they wanted to find a way to get the word out in a more neutral way. and so the solution that the time was in 1939. they started and/or session called the news research service, you notice it does is a jewish in the name, and the news research service published a weekly called the newsletter. and it went to important decision-makers. so they sent it to the press, all of the major newspapers across the country, too many members of congress, to the president himself, the people in the justice department and so on. it began to have a reputation as a very good source of news about these kinds of fascist groups. when japan joined germany and
italy in the triple alliance, then the group started publishing things about imperial japan as well. and in the end they published several pieces in the late 1930s, and 39 mostly, about japanese-americans. now, clearly they were not going to, you know, they were not passing the same way among the past among the austrians by third clear to getting its mission somewhere else. a lot of the things they circulated had been circulated by the many anti-japanese forces. there was a lot of anti-japanese tension in the west and had been for some time. so they read the offside report that japanese-americans tactics that were used in afterschool programs cultivated loyalty toward the emperor ever antidemocratic, that kind of thing. then once pearl harbor happened, those reports got picked up even further. so the news research service information that they had
gathered in the that being used in the recent government reports. so, for example, the house un-american affairs committee, the earlier version of that, it was chaired by congressman martin guy. there was a lot of contact between the dies committee and this group, the research service which is part of that l.a. gcc. and their information goes into some of the testimony that helped justify the removal of japanese-americans. yeah, it was rather unexpected funny. most of the time and in the years since there was knowledge that the news research service of my part of the information but it was not known that that was a jewish organization until i found this information, much to my surprise. very odd to read that organizations materials, because at the same time that this is
going on there expanding a huge amount of effort working on anti-prejudice campaigns. i think what happened was that day, it is are useful for them to have these contacts in the government, in the dies committee and so on. they were aware, had issues with access. is not on going after fascist but also communists. but they got the word out so effectively about the dangers of nazism, and that was really their primary concern. the vast majority of their material was really about fascism and primary about pro-german groups. the japanese-americans stuff was not great in volume and was sort of incidental, secondary. and something that they did because the dies committee and others asking for information and they got the information, kinds of funneled through them. however, it didn't have -- it
did end up having an impact. there was a report put out about the dangers of the japanese american community. it had a more formal name but it became known as the dye yellow paper. a lot of that information was great for the news research service and end up doing a lot of damage. even during the war there was a coalition of pro-civil rights groups come together and one of thingofthe things they did was o work to enable japanese americans to come back to them. that work starts as early as 43, 44, kind get the government to distinguished between those people who might come from the might be an individual suspicion as opposed to the community in general, and to allow them to come home. this group is involved in that work. there's no indication that anyone, but they don't acknowledge that those aren't hippies. this is never mentioned. there was an interview done
years ago, with joseph, an oral historian, and when they get to this part of the history of the organization he asked them to turn the tape recorder off. so wasn't ever able to hear what his comments were on that. but they do work very hard to support the japanese-americans kinard afterwards. so one has to think that they realized that they had done wrong in this case. these are people who spent come including joseph, able to spent their lives working on civil rights issues. and that they participated in this is really shocking to people have a difficult time hearing that. there were certainly jewish americans who stood up, just as there were other americans who stood up and opposed these policies. they were in the minority. serving on the west coast they were very much in the minority.
but people don't expect to hear their story. and, unfortunately, it's a story of kind of getting in bed with the wrong people. so they got in bed with people like martin dies and so on because he was able to further their campaign against anti-semitism. but in doing so they ended up doing damage to another. i think many people read history looking for good guys and bad guys and here's a case where if you look at, go back to his organization in los angeles and like i said these are people who dedicated their lives as of right. and yet even they got caught up in a sort of wartime hysteria. so it's not so simple as good guys and bad guys. and i think as we saw at the time of 9/11, i think during times of war when people feel vulnerable they sometimes -- as
i would hope that would be the message. uncertain not trying to develop by the community if you look at the jewish committee over all the fact that they maintained silence for the most part, unofficial silence. at first when i started doing the research i saw that as a failure because i expected them to speak out. but when you look at the secular path at that time, people are virtually screaming from the rooftops to all of japanese-americans committee should be taken away. by not jumping on the bandwagon, that says something. so i kind of shifted from seeing that as a failure to sing that as, you know, they realized like they were going to get on that bandwagon. it's not quite what i expected to find and is often not the lesson that people expect to
hear, special i go out and talk to committee groups. people will come to the book or come to my lecture expecting a letter the story of the good people who stood up. and there's some of that in the book but it's a much more mixed bag. >> up next, a tour of atelier 6000, then organs local pimp making and bookbinding studio. booktv towards a site with the help of our local cable partner. >> my name is julie winter and i am exact attractor at the atelier 6000 from also called a-6. easier to say. a-6 is a nonprofit and our mission is to advance and making and book arts. on contemporary art forms. so we do that through our making book projects with local authors but we do that through our workshops for high school students, adults. we do that through bringing in
artists and having workshops with art is coming and doing different book arts or printmaking. book arts is hand made books, creating and books that are made that are not just traditional books that could be books that are unbound or bound. all sorts of different structures. some according to flags to tunnel books to traditional bound books that lay flat when you open. it is a book and art and altogether, and it's all handmade. so it's more than just the words that are in the book. it is also the structure of the book is also part of the art. the paper, whether it is fixed or no text. so it's all of that and it's in an enduring world to discover. pretty amazing. this is another book, the most
recent book, and it's written by alan waterson. it relates to her trip on the river and ron schultz is ill should for this. he and treasury collaborated in doing -- ellen elaborate in going with reporter. this is an interesting page because she got the idea to do the book after hiking the trail when she saw enough of it to everybody her of a woman stretching across on this pilgrimage. when ron drew the map, and also this overlay, which is a woman superimposed on this. so as we close this page it shows the woman on the map in
his interpretation. >> artist comes in with a vision and have the writing. and then also when you're working collaboration, ron schultz who did the illustration had both the inspiration of what she is telling in the writing but also his inspiration that he brings to become influenced by what she's describing to them. so than he does of the drawings and yes, that works. i like that. so it really is that collaborative. it's not just the arthur just -- author just writing have all book goes. there's that collaboration and then you each artist along the way, they are bringing in how they are setting the layout of this image and the type on the page, also the letterpress artist. so it really is a collaborative artist. >> this is the original drawing, one of the original drug. this is just a pen and ink drawing. the pen drawings are then
converted to a transparency that faithfully reproduces the pen work. that transparency is used to burn a photosynthesis plate, and that's what we have here. so from that point after the plate has been created, then there's a process of thinking the plate. so i'm using this kind of tile grout spreader to spread it over the surface. in this case, the ink is below the surface of the plate so the image will be held in the lines that are edged below the surface. below the surface of the plate. so i make sure that the ink is spread evenly over the plate, and then try to pull away as much of ink as i can just using the squeegee.
all right. then i'm going to move the plate over here. i'm going to put on gloves for the wiping process. this whole process, every step of it, has to be done for everything you produce. so in this case numerous prints for this book. so then i would use, senator the use for bridal veils and that type of thing, very soft and pliable cloth. and i will gently rub away the bulk of the ink on the plate. you can kind of see how the
images become more and more clear as i work. don't want to press joined with any of these videos. you don't want to take the ink out of the low point in the plate. so once the bulk of the ink is off and i used pages from a telephone book, and gently worked over the surface. again, taking more ink off the plate. and through this process as the ink is removed it becomes easier and easier to move across the surface of the plate. so now it's ready to print. so we walk over to the press. because the plate on the back, or actually there's a steel
plate so there's a magnet year that will hold the plate in place. so i will place it out on the template here, so i'm lining it up. and then on this template i've got lines for the plate goes and then where the paper goes. it's always going to be centered in the paper. all right. put a sheet of newsprint over to keep any ink from getting on the blankets. and then run it through.
[background sounds] >> all right. so there's our print. so it's the same process for every print. so that's one of the labor-intensive aspects of this project. it's a craft and people are working on every aspect of this process from page design to letterpress printing, illustration printing, stitching of the book. so it's all been called craftsmanship. >> want to take all of it about this book by carol buckaroo. it's a book that i am the author of, and handmade book at atelier
6000 with lots of support from studio members to get it accomplished. it is encased in a juniper box which was made specially for us by opportunity foundation. and they did a grand job. put in with wooden boxes about and also information on this original book. it starts with -- the whole idea started with pat clark but i written an article about ron miller, and he is a buckaroo, a fourth generation buckaroo, wrote the article for the high desert journal. and she said let's do a book. of course, i was really excited about it. we started to get how to go about it. the first thing i did was to write the story, but then to put it together i ordered some cowhide from north carolina.
and they have the hallmarks of what the animals had lived through, some barb wire scars and bite marks that had been healed. and we liked that aspect. so we took the hide one by one and lay them out on a large table and cut out the leather cover. so this binding itself is called italian long stitch. we have five signatures, and i'll explain what those are. the closure is a step the goes around the side and goes into a little group to keep it all together. the pages were all hand torn individually. it's about 100 pages. and so we took a large sheet of paper and then we actually with the to size. so each page has been handled quite a few times. the beginning page is horsehair.
it was a print that we made using horsehair and a brighter, that's the in pages for it. then i want to tell you about the signatures. a signature is a group of pages that are folded together -- if i can find the back -- here we are. we have five signatures. as i said, that just means how we put this book together with the pages. so one piece of paper, this great paper which has, if you can see it, we call it our glue horse because it was -- she drew a horse with glue on plaxico then ran through the press. but that is the first page. it's also the last page which shows stirrups in embossed with. so as a put these pages
together, there are five of them, and when you get to the center -- the book always lies flat, but you get to the center and we get these -- it shows how it's stitched. and so everyone of these pages has actually for pieces to it. that means that when we are printing we have to know where this page goes because is not sequential. so we print that and then these two had to be printed together, and the back page. so we would print one part and then we would put that aside, let it dry, but more. every one of these illustratio illustrations, from drawings rush to this is of pat clark's illustrations. the drawings, the photographs, and boston's and solar plates, there is techniques of the printing. every page has been handled
multiple times. spent it's an artform in itself, just the book. and it's beautiful told, to read, to look at, everything about it in that wonderful dance between the words and images and the whole book structure. so it puts it in a format that is handmade, that is not as, it is an artform for puts into this, it's going to last for ever. it has a beauty of its own. so you can enjoy the beauty and see it and depression all these different processes that go into creating the art book. >> this weekend, booktv is in mobile, alabama, with the help of our local cable partner comcast. next we sit down with author and to discuss the fort mims massacre and the redstick wars
of 1813-1814. >> we are at fort mims park, it's a little five-acre park and the southern end of alabama and its location of a major battle between the americans of creek indians in 1813. the fort itself was full of all kinds of folks taking shelter from an impending indian attack, including indians that were allied with the americans, local settlers, militia from mississippi territory and lots of slaves, but five and people inside this for. on august 30, 1813, a faction of the creeks that was quite upset with the american public towards indians attacked the fort and there was a long battle. indians some 250, 300 people inside the fort were killed. it's largely known as the fort
mims massacre in most older history books. that's i first learned about it in fifth grade when i read about the fort mims massacre. but there was much more to the story. the creeks like most american indians had to find a way to deal with expanding american settlements throughout the late 18th, early 19th century. in this area the creeks were quite successful as were the charities in at least some portion of them assimilating to american lifestyle. so quite a few in this area own slaves but they had big plantations. they raise domestic livestock, and large were kind of accommodating their way of life to american norms of agriculture and other kinds of things. but a large part of the creek nation didn't see the damage to the. they want to maintain their traditional life. so the was a real risk in the creeks in 1813, a civil war broke out and what happened at fort mims kind of a continuation of that civil war but it did
bring the americans and into the work against the redstick creek action that was at the american. there was a religious component. the shawnee prophet and his brother tecumseh were proselytizing for a new kind of religious way of life for american indians at that page. succumbs again and convert a lot of creeks to that religion, that profit religion. there was a political angle as well. most of the cree creek leaders a time when the pay pay of the american government in one way or another. so their families, their lineage were profiting while other lineages were out of power were suffering considerable from poverty by the early 1800s. so there's just a lot of reasons why individuals chose one side or the other, but in this area most of the local creeks were pro-american and decided to stay on the side of the civil war to
a couple were very proud people. william weatherford was from this area and he was leading the attack on the redstick. the folks in the fort mims had been boarded up for about a month. there been a skirmish back in july not too far with involve some of the militia from this area right here on fort mims. apparently the redstick attack was in response to the skirmish. actually the creeks have been in their own nation, within their own territory and who attacked by americans. they felt they were wronged by the end he decided to take revenge, particularly on the creeks in this area. so in the morning the folks inside the fort had to go out and find food. or 500 so people within about an acre sized fort. so very cramped conditions and had to go out and forage every day for food. so people dispersed and went intended to cattle, a kandahar for scraps from nearby fields.
so that went on throughout the morning. the various sightings of red state warriors in the area. molted by african slaves and they reported this to the owners but were not only for some reason the one of the slaves was whipped at the time of the attack for having spread false rumors. the attack was quite a surprise, probably should have been at the garrison was not a formal military unit. they were all militia, and local ones and territorial militia units. and so very badly led to the fort itself was very badly built. begun loopholes, which had been about five or six feet above the ground so that defenders could stare down on attackers to read three-foot level say they were century on the level of the attacking force event and took possession and began firing in the fort. about what on for quite a long time. there may be 750 redstick attack
in force, and about 700 actively fighting inside amongst the many civilians and other people inside the fort. by sometime around afternoon from two or 3:00 in the afternoon the battle kind of stalemate so the redstick's withdrew, decide whether they should renew, and eventually they did. at that point is the art of good portion of the southern part of the fort. that fire spread and at that point defense was impossible or so the few remaining defenders tried to escape and quite a few were killed or captured but about 25 made it out of the fort. the battle made all the papers throughout the kanji. it was considered a huge disaster of military, american military might. took quite a while for the local army is to reconstitute themselves. volunteers were devastated by this. but eventually they organize a southern army from the mobile
area. the georgians organize a couple different attacks from the east and then the tennessee troops under several jobs, most famously andrew jackson, invaded from the north. this actually was one of the major outcomes of the battle was this introduction of andrew jackson into the war of 1812. is a successes throughout the creek war, special at horseshoe bend, they made him famous of the country but also convinced leadership in washington that he could actually fight and win. so he was given command of the army at new orleans which defeated the british there in early 1815. andrew jackson is a controversial figure for many reasons, for his radical sorts of policy and all aspects of government, but certainly one outcome of his experiences during the creek war was his determination to see indian removal finally occur throughout the eastern united states. a lot of people like george
washington, thomas jefferson have tried to formally a policy of assimilation were indians could essentially become americans in their sense of the word, and stay where they were located but on smaller parcels of land. the american indians of course have populations in the tens of thousands and they owned millions of acres of land and the american government was under tremendous pressure by american sailors to take that land one way or another. so jackson was quite excited when he heard the news of fort mims and he saw this as a perfect opportunity to take land from the creeks. eventually negotiated the treaty of fort jackson. at the end of the war, that took 21 million acres from the creek nation. oath from the creeks that he fought with as well as those he fought against. 20 years later of course when he became president he was able to then pushed through the removal i of 1830 that did lead to wide
scale removal of indians from southeast as well as the northwest territories, the ohio country. the attack itself of course launched the invasion of the creek nation and the confiscation of all the 21 million acres, which after the war was opened up for settlement. alabama and a good bit of southern georgia would not have been, would not have been settled as early as it had been at award for this war. knows a thing called alabama theater, a big land rush in the years following the war. that is the most immediate impact. of course, the removal act, this sense of betrayal the americans felt at this sneak attack, the way they do to come sneak attack and massacre. they felt very much of the trade because in previous years people like benjamin hawkins and federal agents have tried to do the best to assimilate creeks. this was a very clear response from both the creek nation that
they did not want to become americans. so they gave a lot of forceful removal proponents can of indians out of this area probably. conference. is a phrase benjamin hawkins years. use a federal federal agent to the southern indians. when he first got wind of the redstick movement, largely religious efforts but also very militaristic, he said the redstick's or possessive of conquering spirit by the master of breath, the shawnee great spirit, savior. so i thought that was appropriate from that perspective but also when the americans are attacked of fort mims, the response was to respond in kind and then basically go into an all-out war with the creeks. so i thought a congress. capture the essence of what was going on on all sides of this conflict. i was part of a team of archaeologists who are contracted by the alabama
struggle commission to look at the archaeology that is common you for the last 50 years. a lot of digging at the site that fort mims, and we have thousands of artifacts and no reports. so anyway we spent about a year back in 2003-2004 analyzing and collecting. is in the process that i begin to read up on history and see there was a lot of very old historical ideas that needed to be re-examined. a lot more evidence that available now than in the 1890s when the last major work ever done on the redstick were. the archaeology relating to the history. i hope that people who read "a conquering spirit" see that american frontier life have lots of different perspectives, certainly the creek of perspective have been underrepresented in history, an indian perspective in general. although that's clearly changing now so i hope that people could understand the redstick point of view. they weren't evil.
they had all kinds of legitimate grievances. got them of course is tragic from all perspectives. it's a very instructive period to study. i kind of view of fort mims, i kind of view it as similar to many other stories that often are -- fiction writers will take some kind of vessel like the titanic or a rowboat our lifeboat or space station, some kind of contained entity in which people interact and really kind of show their true selves. i thought that really is what was happening at fort mims. we see the cruelty of the commander here, daniel beasley, who would then the sheriff, whipping the slaves were telling the truth about the approach of the redstick creaks. all different kinds of human service tech on within that were most fascinating to me and
really trying to delve into the genealogy of these individuals showed in fact they're all quite closer related. these people are fighting on opposite sides but they all knew each other. very, very personal war played out here on kind of a small-scale. but it's like the american civil war crunched down into a little tiny event in many ways. you see all the same kind of stories here at fort mims as you see on the bigger picture like the american civil war. >> up next author michael vinson williams talks out his book, "medgar evers: mississippi martyr." the author spoke with booktv during a recent visit to jackson, mississippi, with help of our cable partner comcast. >> for anything on capitol street, let's let the merchants down on capitol street feel the economic pinch. let me say this to you. i had one merchant to call me, and he said i want you to know that i've talked to my national
office today, and they want me to tell you that we don't need your business. these are stories that help support the white citizens council. the council that is dedicate to you and i second class citizens. now, finally, ladies and gentlemen we will be demonstrating here until freedom comes for negroes here in jackson, mississippi. [applause] >> fifteen minutes past midnight he got out of his car beside his home and the negro residential area. and a big a lot about 40 yards away, a sniper fired a shot from a high-powered rifle at his home away. the bullet hit him in the back, crashed through his body, through a window into the house. he died with an hour at a jackson hospital. cedex is believe the fatal shot was fired from this tree. they found a rifle in the bushes which they think is the murder weapon. they say they also have other clues. ♪ ♪
♪ ♪ >> as a child i remember vividly my mother talking about medgar evers, and she always tells a six-run important that you know who this person was, that you know what he did. she would always -- should always dismayed that nobody had really written about him, or he hadn't really gotten of the kind of respect that she thought he deserved, unlike martin luther king, jr. and bolcom x. and others. that she didn't feel he really got that kind of recognition.
he was born of course in decatur mississippi but it's important to understand the significance of seven, his mother and father in particular because they were teaching him that it was his responsibility to not only care for the commit at launch but is responsibly to the larger committee. so he grew up with this kind of attitude. his father was very much protective of the family, and person who talked about the importance of manhood and their responsibility as men. so he grew up with that. his mother as well taught him the brotherhood of all men. and in particular its their response would also. he grew up with these kinds of ideas. it's important to note his childhood, to come he was oftentimes these with racism in terms of individuals he knew who had been lynched and what that meant for him. and so that childhood for him was a growing experience. but out of that came this idea that you have a personal responsibility, and that's what's important.
the 1950s and 60s in mississippi was very repressive and violent in terms of african-americans in their position and status in society at large. we talked about citizenship. wrepugnant individual who denied opportunities to vote, denied opportunities for equal access to education, denied opportunities to participate fully within the society. so it was oppressive to say the least, but most importantly for understanding the kind of environment is bad it was a very violent time. individuals who decided they wanted to raise the vote at times could be killed or beaten at a moments notice. this was not just connected to the right to vote. any person who exhibited any kind of attempt at demonstrating their manhood or womanhood was subjected to either lynchings or beatings or brutality, those kinds of things. that was the environment people
were acting on. that becomes important for understand not only what medgar evers was doing but also those individuals who are also activists along with them as well. you are acting against a society that in many instances will kill you. that's the kind of environment we were talking about. individuals also would lose their jobs if they identified as individuals who are trying to change the system. they may have loans that would be suddenly called do. so these are the kinds of things that would go on. the employees would be notified of their participation, those kinds of things. it was kind of an oppressive environment in the 1950s and '60s when evers was auburn. he decided in 1953 while he was at a league of -- he decided then that he would volunteer to do that and actually put forth his application in 1954. the importance of this is evers
believe that african-americans should have an opportunity just like everybody else, not only to go to school but also to participate in all aspects of the society in which they lived. he put his application in in january 1954. it would go through the process and in the end of course he would be night on a technicality of which they would say that he hadn't got the proper support from where he had lived originally. and so he would be denied and even though they said that we would open it up again for consideration, nothing ever came of it. the important part of that, however, is the naacp was paying very close attention to his application at that point as well because this was the years in which the naacp was really focused on trying to integrate institutions at the graduate level. and so once he was denied, they actually offered him the naacp field secretary position. so the naacp he came this vehicle for which he then could
express himself fully. the naacp field secretary was responsible for organizing naacp chapters, was responsible for investigating all instances of brutality and wrongdoing throughout the state. the field secretary also was responsible for making reports, any kind of problems or issues. and so the field secretary position was not just something that was localized in the office, but more so they went out of state speaking to groups of individuals, encouraging individuals to register to vote encouraging lawsuits, filing affidavits, showing individuals how to register and organize. so the field secretary's responsibly was immense and massive and it covers the entire state. deathly for medgar evers one of the more than it once happened with the 1955 lynching of 14 year-old emma still in which his
responsibility as the time was to investigate what had happened, to try to seek out witnesses and then try to get justice for emmett till's family. that was something that really kind of bothered him also, as would a 14 year old child who was brutally murdered and his kind of things replicate themselves as well. in 1955 there were several murders in mississippi, lamont smith in her cave in mississippi. and again evers was responsible for investing those and then trying to get justice. and so with that he had to go in and oftentimes in disguise to try to figure what had happened, to try to speak to individuals who may have witnessed it, get a sense of what had gone on, then trying to fill out affidavits and things of that nature. most important, to get the word out to the naacp headquarters in new york so they could also figure out what's going on these were some of the prominent things that evers was involved in but i think it's important to
understand when were talking about medgar evers and civil rights activism that everyday ey the individuals get up and leave the house, this is the mentality that we have to think of today, that they understood full well that they might not come back home again. when they leave their families and kissed them in the morning, that that may be the last time they see them. but yet they still do it day in and day out. for the field secretary that something that he is constantly in that kind of fire, that kind of environment. it will become much more difficult for evers after he gets his national or his televised address in 1963. because prior to that he had to go in come in many instances under cover. if your data with sharecroppers yet to go interest as a sharecropper. you have to go in the middle of the night to talk to people where they can be seen by whites in the area. so it's very, very difficult. after he gives his televised address been pretty much every knows what he looks like to make it more difficult to go
incognito, undercover in that respect. so it was always difficult and it was always drawing, but evers understood that going in. and he would often talk about the fact that even if he was killed in the process, that would be worth it if it changed the way things were. that's the kind of mentality of the person we're talking about here. when you start looking at the environment, when you start looking at what people are faced with as field secretary, your job is to go in the heart of all that. then on top of that you being monitored by organizations, whether it's the white citizens council, the mississippi state sovereign commission. they are also keeping an eye on everything that you're doing, everything that you are saying, as much as they can. they have these files to the people you also. this assassination occurred during the early morning hours on june 12. this is june 11, of course,
kennedy had gave his presidential address dealing with civil rights issues, and evers have been watching that. he gets home a little after 12 after leaving a meeting, naacp meeting. so he gets home a little after 12. he gets out of his car, and he decides what he's going to bring in. and decide that he's going to bring in the house and t-shirts with the words jim crow must go printed across them that the naacp had earlier. as he gets out of his car, he's shot in the back. and his family, of course, is awake because they're waiting on him to get home, and they can pull up. and then they also hear a shot. and when he's hit with a bullet, i mean, he's -- and this is a devastating shot, but he strong enough to, when his wife opened the door, she sees that he is
crawled pretty much to the door as if he's trying to come home, as she remembers. and then, of course, the neighbors here the shots going on and people come out. in acm in this state, including his wife and children. and so this is a very emotional time because people understand now the severity of what had just happened. here's an individual who had done nothing but work toward advancement of african-america african-americans, and to bring justice to the state, and then he shot in the back this way. and so it also kind of released a movement, to. his assassination as people try to come together to bring about positive change. but the assassination is what's really, i guess, kind of places this really kind of inner focused in terms of the severity
of what's going on here. >> there was a sense of, i guess when i say bittersweet, i mean people are happy, or least relieved now, that that part of it was closed and that the individual who was actually murdered medgar evers had been found guilty. but at the same time we understand that this person had lived his life, you know, a long life. he was an old man by the time he was convicted. and so he had an opportunity to see his family. yet opportunities to enjoy himself, and those kinds of
things, that were denied evers. so when i say bittersweet, that's what i mean. you have this kind of closure part, the person found guilty. but then the person who did the most to try to change society for the best, his life has been cut short and his family has been denied that. more important to the state in the nation have been denied what he could have done with the rest of his life. and so you those kinds of ways to it. but overall people are quite happy that justice has finally been served. what i really want to do with the book was no to not only talk about the life of medgar evers, but to situate him in the larger civil rights discussion. i wanted to understand who he was and understand how we did the kind of work he did. because i didn't want to just tell the story of an individual. i wanted to tell the story of a
man, and what civil rights struggle actually met on a personal, familial, professional level as well. i think it's impact is he really demonstrated the humanity and the humanness of civil rights struggle, and the humanness of what it means to be a person living in a society, at whatever time and space you are in, and what your responsibilities and roles are. and so i think by looking at the life of medgar evers, you really see that in great in vivid detail, even though he was an individual who is very much a low-key, what he did spoke balkans. and people are still hearing that message today. ..